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Q 17. Which are the standards for tower ?

Ans: There are no standards for tower as a whole. But standards are available

a) To estimate the wind load on tower structure, tower appurtenances, antennas, ladder, cable tray etc.

b) To estimate the earthquake load on tower

c) To estimate the Ice load on tower

d) To estimate the dead load on a tower Standards are also available for working out permissible stress in any member of the tower.
Working out the forces experienced by any member of the tower due to applied external loads is normally done by well established scientific methods.
Elaborate software with capability of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) or dynamic analysis have been developed for doing these calculations.
STAAD, COSMOS etc are examples of such software.