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Q 19. Are towers designed according to standards of different countries comparable ?

Ans: YES to a large extent . Objective of standard of any country is a get a safe design with minimum cost/materials. This objective is achieved by makers of standards in their own way, which is suitable for that country. Depending on the type of data available in that country, they work out the load on the structure. If there are any gray areas, where data is not being gathered in that country, then that shortcoming is covered by a factor of safety ( typically a multiplier up to 1.5 , figure depending on percentage of gray areas ). In a situation, where all relevant data is being collected and is readily available, then standards are so made as to take care of each load contributing factor . Factor of safety in such a situation is kept low e.g. 1.05 or 1.1. In either of above 2 cases, the tower after design and fabrication is destructively type tested .This test will confirm that the design is correct and safe in all respects. Although approach to design will be different but equal level of confidence in safety of final product can be expected in either of the above two cases.In most cases, customer is interested in building some reserve capacity in his tower for future loading of antennas. In such a case, he specifies overriding factor of safety as 1.7 or 2.